The National Iron & Steel Heritage Museum
How Forgings Were Made From Steel At Midvale Steel & Ordnance Company

1.  Steel was made in open hearth furnaces, cast into ingots, rolled into long blooms, and cut into shorter billets.

2.  After passing initial inspection, the billets were heated.

3.  The almost-molten steel was shaped with a plunger that produced the opening and outer diameter of the forging.

4.  Plant inspectors measured the length, thickness, and diameter of the forgings and tested their strength.

5.  Government inspectors determined whether the forgings had the necessary chemical composition to be made into successful shells (would not explode).

6.  The forgings were then readied for shipment.